Study Guide Animal Parasitology –Chapter 7-17
Warning: These questions are only a guide, they are not meant to take the place of reading the text and studying the class notes. You are responsible for the material covered in class even though I may have forgotten to cover it in this study guide.
What are the distinguishing morphological characters of this genus?
Entamoeba histolytica causes what disease?
How is Entamoeba histolytica distinguished morphologically from the other amoebas?
What life cycle stage of Entamoeba histolytica is infective to man?
What stages of Entamoeba histolytica are found in man?
Where in the world is Entamoeba histolytica found?
What is the source of infection of Entamoeba histolytica?
What part of the body (organ, tissue, system) is affected by Entamoeba histolytica?
How does Entamoeba histolytica damage the host tissue?
What is the major nutrient source for Entamoeba histolytica?
What group or kind of people are most affected by Entamoeba histolytica?
How is Entamoeba histolytica transmitted?
How is Entamoeba histolytica diagnosed?
What clinical signs are typical of the disease caused by Entamoeba histolytica?
How can Entamoeba histolytica be controlled?
What ecological factors affect infection of man by Entamoeba histolytica?
What simple measures can be taken to prevent infection by Entamoeba histolytica?
What is the treatment (chemotherapy) for Entamoeba histolytica?
What is invasive amebiasis? Secondary amebiasis? Chronic amebiasis? Hepatic amebiasis? Acute intestinal amebiasis?
Entamoeba hartmanni is distinguished from Entamoeba histolytica by what morphologic characters?
Is Entamoeba hartmanni considered pathogenic?
Where in the host is Entamoeba hartmanni found?
Entamoeba gingivalis is distinguished from Entamoeba histolytica by what morphologic characters?
Is Entamoeba gingivalis considered pathogenic?
Where in the host is Entamoeba gingivalis found?
Iodamoeba buetschlii is distinguished from Entamoeba histolytica by what morphologic characters?
Is Iodamoeba buetschlii considered pathogenic?
Where in the host is Iodamoeba buetschlii found?
Endolimax nana is distinguished from Entamoeba histolytica by what morphologic characters?
Is Endolimax nana considered pathogenic?
Where in the host is Endolimax nana found?
How many nuclei do Apicomplexa have?
Are all species of Apicomplexa parasites?
Why are they called Apicomplexa?
What cellular structures are typical of the Apicomplexa? (Not found in any other organisms?)
Identify these structures in a drawing of the generalized Apicomplexan.
What are the three phases of the life cycle of an Apicomplexan? Define each phase.
Eimeria tenella is a parasite of what vertebrate? Does it have an intermediate host?
What organ or structure in the body of the vertebrate in infected by Eimeria?
What life cycle stage of Eimeria is infective to the vertebrate host?
What phase or phases in the life cycle of Eimeria occur in the cells of the vertebrate host?
What phase or phases in the life cycle of Eimeria occur outside of the vertebrate host?
What life cycle stage of Eimeria passes out of the vertebrate host?
What are the signs of disease in the vertebrate host for Eimeria?
The definitive host for Toxoplasma gondii is ________________?
What tissue is infected in the definitive host for Toxoplasma gondii?
What are intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii?
What tissues are infected in the intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii?
How do humans become infected with Toxoplasma gondii?
How do intermediate hosts become infected with Toxoplasma gondii?
What are the symptoms of toxoplasmosis in adult humans?
What group of humans is most pathologically affected by Toxoplasma gondii?
How do humans avoid being affected by Toxoplasma gondii?
What are two hosts for Sarcocystis? How are they usually related?
Which is the usual definitive host for Sarcocystis?
What tissue is infected in the definitive host for Sarcocystis?
What symptoms does it cause?
Where is this parasite found in the body of the host?
What is the size of this parasite?
Unknown taxonomic position
Pneumocystis carinii causes what disease?
What group of people presents active cases of this disease?
How prevalent is this parasite in the normal population?
The organism that causes malaria is found in what Phylum? What order?
How many cases of malaria are there per year? How many people die?
Who discovered the vector of malaria and where was he when he discovered it?
How many species of Plasmodium are there? How many of these affect man?
How many hosts are there in the life cycle of human malaria?
What is the stage of malaria injected into man by the vector and what happens to them after injection?
What is the name of the part of the Malaria life cycle that takes place in the liver?
What is the name of the part of the Malaria life cycle that takes place in the blood?
What are the names of the parts of the Malaria life cycle that take place in the mosquito?
In blood, what stages or morphological types of malarial parasites are seen?
What life cycle stage of malaria is infective to the vector?
What life cycle stage of malaria is infective to man?
What is the name of the process that produces the stages that travel to the salivary glands of the vector of malaria?
What is the vector of malaria?
What species of malaria is the most frequent cause of disease and in what geographical area is it found?
What species of malaria are found in the Americas?
What granules appear in the malaria infected blood cell and are dark brown or black in color?
Dark granules in the malaria-infected blood cell are the result of what process?
What causes the fever paroxysms (episodes) in malaria patients?
In malaria, what reproductive process takes place in the red blood cells? (Do not answer "sexual" or "asexual")
In malaria, what reproductive process takes place in the cyst in the gut of the insect?
One species of Plasmodium has distinctive gametocytes, what is the species? Draw a picture of these gametocytes.
The maturation of the male gamete in the stomach of the mosquito is called _____________________.
What three species of Plasmodium make up 93% of all malaria cases?
What species of Plasmodium causes the least number of cases?
What percent of red blood cells are infected in Plasmodium falciparum?
What stages of malaria are seen in the RBC's of Plasmodium vivax malaria?
What stages of malaria are seen in the RBC's of Plasmodium falciparum malaria?
Which species of malaria in man causes the most severe disease?
What complication of falciparum malaria occurs in 10% of the cases and is nearly always fatal?
What was the first anti-malarial drug used?
What species of malaria produce relapse and why?
What is recrudescence and how does it differ from relapse?
What species of malaria produces recrudescence?
What factors contribute to the level of natural transmission of malaria in a given area?
Name two modern treatments for malaria.
Name three ways to control malaria.
What is the major symptom of malaria?
What is the single feature that distinguishes the Phylum Ciliophora?
What ciliate infects man and where in the body is it found?
Name two ciliates that parasitize fish. How do they harm the fish?
What is the common morphological feature of the microspora and myxozoa?
What is the life cycle stage that contains this feature?
These parasites are mostly pathogenic to what large group of organisms?
Name two microsporan parasites of economic importance.
Microsporan parasites might be of what positive use?
What is a microsporan parasite of humans?
Why is this class included in the Cnidaria?
These organisms are mostly parasites of what vertebrate group?
What species is the most notorious and what is the common name of the disease it causes?
What is the body shape and symmetry of members of the Phylum Platyhelminthes?
Most of the body of the flatworm is made up of a loosely arranged mass of fibers and various cell types and is called ___________?
Organ systems in Platyhelminthes include what systems; DO NOT include what systems?
The excretory system of flatworms consists of __________________ cells.
The body covering of digenea is a dynamic cellular structure called ____________________________.
What directions do the muscles on digenea run? This allows what types of movement in the worm?
Digeneans have what type of nervous system?
In digeneans, what cells perform osmoregulation and excretion?
Draw a digenetic trematode and identify the intestinal cecae excretory bladder, testis, ovary, Melis' gland, uterus, vitellaria, ventral sucker, and gonopore.
What are the elements of the digestive system of digenea?
What tissues line the digestive tract of digeneans?
How many testes do digeneans have?
What are the elements of the male reproductive system in digenea?
How many ovaries do digeneans have?
In the female reproductive system of Digenea, what is the special structure that consists of two groups of unicellular glands that secrete material into the ootype and facilitates the formation of shell and lubricates the passage of the egg?
In digenea, some eggs have a lid-like structure called the ____________________.
What are all the possible basic life cycle stages in digenetic trematodes?
In the digenetic life cycle, the first free-swimming stage that appears is the _____________________.
In the digenetic life cycle, the stage that appears in the second intermediate host is the __________.
In the digenetic life cycle, the sporocyst has an internal brood chamber that contains ____________________ that develop into secondary sporocysts or rediae.
In the digenetic life cycle, the rediae are elongate and usually possess two to four ____________________ that aid in migration through the snail.
Schistosoma haematobium can be found in what geographic locations?
Schistosoma mansoni can be found in what geographic locations?
Schistosoma japonicum can be found in what geographic locations?
The most distinctive feature of Schistosoma spp. is ______________
The female of genus Schistosoma is held in a special male structure called the __________________.
In Schistosoma what life cycle stage infects man?
In Schistosoma, cercariae have special structures with which they dissolve the tissue of the host. What are these structures called?
Adult Schistosoma mansoni are found where in the body of the host?
Adult Schistosoma haematobium are found where in the body of the host?
Adult Schistosoma japonicum are found where in the body of the host?
Humans infected by schistosomes that are adults in birds or aquatic mammals may suffer what disease?
What genus of snail is the intermediate host for schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico?
How do humans become infected with Schistosoma?
What is the common name applied to schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico?
What species of Schistosoma is found in the Americas (and the Caribbean)?
What species of Schistosoma are found in the delta of the Nile River?
What species of Schistosoma are found in equatorial Africa?
Draw the eggs of the three species of human schistosomes and indicate the species of each.
What morphological features distinguish the males of the three species of human schistosomes, the females?
What is unusual about the life cycle of schistosomes compared o the rest of the digeneans?
About how long does it take for a schistosome to infect a human and then mature to a reproducing individual?
How long could a schistosome adult live in a human?
What is the cause of most of the pathological effect in schistosomes?
What are the three phases of disease in schistosomiasis, and what are the symptoms in each.
Why do people get cirrhosis of the liver when they have schistosomiasis?
How can you diagnose schistosomiasis?
What is the treatment for schistosomiasis?
How can schistosomiasis be controlled? (What four steps can be used?)
What is schistosome cercarial dermatitis? What is another name for this condition?
What is the most distinctive feature of the Family Echinostomatidae?
Where in the body of the host do adult Echinostomid worms live?
How do humans become infected with Echinostoma revolutum?
Approximately how many species of Echinostoma are described? Of these how many infect humans?
Do these worms have low or high host specificity?
What are the intermediate hosts for Echinostoma revolutum?
What are the most common hosts for Fasciola hepatica?
Where do Fasciola hepatica adults live in the body of the host?
In Fasciola hepatica, the oral sucker is located on an anterior prominence called ______________?
What organs are branched in Fasciola hepatica?
Cercariae of Fasciola hepatica escape from the snail host and then encyst where?
How do cattle and sheep and humans become infected with Fasciola hepatica?
What is a common water plant that may be contaminated with Fasciola hepatica?
What is the site of infection of adults of Fasciola hepatica?
How do the worms reach the final site of infection in Fasciola hepatica?
What is the most pathologically damaging part of the Fasciola hepatica life cycle?
What is the diagnosis for Fasciola hepatica?
How can human avoid infection by Fasciola hepatica?
How can farmers control infection of cattle and sheep by Fasciola hepatica?
What reservoir host makes control of Fasciola hepatica in cattle and sheep difficult?
What is a fasciolid parasite of Asian elephants?
What other fasciolid worms did we mention? (There are 2 more)
Fasciolopsis buski is a common parasite of what two animals in the orient?
What is peculiar about the habitat of Fasciolopsis buski?
How do humans become infected with Fasciolopsis buski?
How can humans avoid infections of Fasciolopsis buski?