Surveying: Surveying is the science and art of determining the relative positions of points on, above, or beneath the Earth’s surface. It involves measuring distances, angles, and elevations using various instruments and techniques to create maps, plots, and diagrams. Surveying is essential in fields such as construction, land development, and navigation, providing accurate data for designing and planning infrastructure projects, property boundaries, and geographic information systems (GIS).

Topography: Topography refers to the study and representation of the Earth’s surface features, including its shapes, contours, and elevations. This involves mapping the natural and man-made features such as mountains, valleys, rivers, roads, and buildings. Topographic maps use contour lines to depict elevation changes, providing a three-dimensional perspective of the landscape on a two-dimensional medium. Understanding topography is crucial for environmental planning, hiking, urban development, and various engineering applications.